نوع مقاله : مقالۀ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم پایه، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گناباد، گناباد، ایران

2 گروه زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

مطالعة حاضر به بررسی رابطة بین عملکرد زبان‌آموزان ایرانی در بخش خواندن آزمون تافل با راهبردهای تست‌زنی و نیز آگاهی فراشناختی از راهبردهای خواندن می‌بپردازد. شصت و دو دانشجوی رشتة زبان انگلیسی به‌طور تصادفی انتخاب شدند. برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها از آزمون بسندگی دانش زبانی نلسون نمونه، بخش درک و مطلب، آزمون تافل، پرسش‌نامة راهبردهای تست‌زنی و پرسش‌نامة آگاهی فراشناختی از راهبردهای خواندن ((MARSI استفاده شد. داده‌ها از طریق آمار توصیفی و آزمون‌های آماری همبستگی و تی‌تست مستقل با استفاده از نرم‌افزار آماری SPSS نسخة 19 مورد تحلیل شد. آزمون همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد که بین استفاده از راهبردهای تست‌زنی و بخش خواندن آزمون تافل همبستگی منفی (13/0-) و بین آگاهی فراشناختی از راهبردهای خواندن با بخش خواندن آزمون تافل همبستگی پایینی (17/0) وجود دارد. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که دانشجویان بیشتر از مؤلفة راهبردهای استدلالی خواندن استفاده می‌نمایند. به‌علاوه، تحلیل همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد که بین سطح بسندگی زبان انگلیسی و نمرات دانشجویان در بخش خواندن آزمون تافل رابطة معناداری وجود دارد (r =0.74، (p< 0.001 . در پایان، پیشنهادهایی برای استفاده از راهبردهای پاسخ به سؤالات خواندن آزمون تافل ارائه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

جوادی، م.، کیوان‌آرا، م.، یعقوبی، م.، حسن‌زاده، ا.، و عبادی، ز. (2010) رابطة بین آگاهی فراشناختی از راهبردهای مطالعه و وضعیت تحصیلی دانشجویان دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان. آموزش در علوم پزشکی.10(3)، 246-254.
Afflerbach, P., Pearson, P. D., & Paris, S. G. (2008). Clarifying differences between reading skills and reading strategies. Reading Teacher, 61(5), 364-373.
Alderson, J. C. (1990). Testing reading comprehension skills. Part two: Getting students to talk about taking a reading test. Reading in a Foreign Language, 7, 465–503.
Almasi, J. F. (2003). Teaching strategic process in reading. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Anderson, R. C., Hiebert, E. H., Scott, J. A., & Wilkinson, I. A. (1985). Becoming a nation of readers: The report of the commission on reading. Washington, DC: National Academy of Education.
Block, E. (1986). The comprehension strategies of second language readers. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 463-494.
Cohen, A. (1984). On taking language tests: What the students report. Language Learning, 1(1), 70-81.
Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 231-235). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906-911.
Ghyasi, M., Safdarian, Z., & Amini Farsani, M. (2011). Metacognitive awareness of reading strategies: A triangulated study of Iranian EFL learners. International Conference on Languages, Literature and Linguistics, IPEDR vol.26, IACSIT Press, Singapore.
Imus, H. A., Rothney, J. W., & Bear, R. M. (1938). An evaluation of visual factors in reading. Hanover, N.H.: Dartmouth College.
Israel, S. E. (2007). Using metacognitive assessments to create individualized reading instruction. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Jacobs, J. E., & Paris, S. G. (1987). Children’s metacognition about reading: Issues in definition, measurement, and instruction. Educational Psychologist, 22(3-4), 255- 278.
Jafari, S. M., & Shokrpour, N. (2012). The reading strategies used by Iranian ESP students to comprehend authentic expository texts in English. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 1(4), 102-113.
Karbalaei, A. (2010). A comparison of the metacognitive reading strategies used by EFL and ESL readers. The Reading Matrix, 10(2), 165-180.
Khani Arani, H., Davoudi Mobarakeh, S., & Eslami Rasekh, A. (2012). Investigating associations between metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension in EAP in Iran. The Asian ESP Journal, 8(4), 63-92.
Lee, J. W., & Ku, M. (2005). Yeongeo Ilgi Siheom-Suhaeng Jeonryak Sayonge Gawnhan Sarye Yeongu [A case study on the use of English reading test-taking strategies]. Yeongeo KyoyukYeongu (English Language Teaching), 17(2), 179-201.
Mahmoudi, M. (2014). Reading strategy use among Iranian EFL Learners. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World (IJLLALW), 6(1), 371-378.
Martinez, A. (2008). Analysis of ESP university students’ reading strategy awareness. IBÉRICA, 15, 165-176
Miholic, V. (1994). An inventory to pique students’ metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Reading, 38, 84–86.
Mokhtari, K., & Reichard, C. (2002). Metacognitive awareness of reading strategies inventory (MARSI) Version 1.0. Journal of Educational Psychology, 49(2), 249-259.
Mokhtari, K., & Reichard, C. A. (2002). Assessing students’ metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 249–259.
Nevo, N. (1989). Test-taking strategies on a multiple choice test of reading comprehension. Language Testing, 6(2), 199-215.
Nitko, A. J. (1983). Educational tests and measurement: An introduction. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Nor Rizan, T., Mohamad Maasum, T., & Maarof, N. (2012). Empowering ESL readers with metacognitive reading strategies. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 1250-1258.
O’Malley, J. M., Russo, R. P., Chamot, A. U., & Stewner-Manzanares, G. (1998). Applications of learning strategies by students learning English as a second language. In C. E. Weinstein, E. T. Goetz, & P. A. Alexander (Eds.), Learning and study strategies: Issues in assessment instruction and evaluation (pp. 215-231). San Diego: Academic Press.
Paris, S. G., & Jacobs, J. E. (1984). The benefits of informed instruction for children’s reading awareness and comprehension skills. Child Development, 55, 2083–2093.
Pereira-Laird, J. A., & Deane, F. P. (1997). Development and validation of a self-report measure of reading strategy use. Reading Psychology: An International Journal, 18, 185–235.
Phakiti, A. (2003). A closer look at the relationship of cognitive and metacognitive strategy use to EFL reading achievement test performance. Language Testing, 20(1), 26-56.
Pressley, M. (2002). Metacognition and self-regulated comprehension. In A. E. Farstrup, & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (pp. 291-309). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Purpura, J. E. (1997). An analysis of the relationships between test-takers’ cognitive and metacognitive strategy use and second language test performance. Language Learning, 47(2), 289-325.
Purpura, J. E. (1998). Investigating the effects of strategy use and second language test performance with high- and low-ability test-takers: A structural equation modelling approach. Language Testing, 15(3), 333-379.
Rokhsari, S. (2012). An investigation of reading strategies used by Iranian EFL intermediate readers. Journal of Academic and Applied Studies, 2(8) & 2(9), 1- 21.
Rubin, J. (1975). What the “good language learner” can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9, 41-51.
Schmitt, M. C. (1990). A questionnaire to measure children’s awareness of strategic reading processes. The Reading Teacher, 43, 454–461.
Senay Sen, H. (2009). The relationship between the use of metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 2301–2305.
Shikano, M. (2014). A quantitative survey on metacognitive awareness of reading strategy use in English by Japanese university students. International Education Center Journal, 14, 11-24
Tavakolie, H. (2014). The effectiveness of metacognitive strategy awareness in reading comprehension: The case of Iranian university EFL students. The Reading Matrix, 14(2), 314-336.
Temur, T., Kargm, T., Saadet, A. B., & Bayar, V. (2010). Metacognitive awareness of grades 6, 7 and 8 students in reading process. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 4193–4199.
Upton, T. A. (1997). First and second language use in reading comprehension strategies of Japanese ESL students. Teaching English as a Second Language Electronic Journal, 3(1), 1-27.
Vasantha Dhanapala, K. (2010). Sri Lankan university students’ metacognitive awareness of L2 reading strategies. International Journal of Development and Cooperation, 16(1), 66-82.
Wenden, A., & Rubin, J. (Eds.). (1987). Learner strategies in language learning. London: Prentice Hall International.
Yüksel, I., & Yüksel I. (2011). Metacognitive awareness of academic reading strategies. WCLTA, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31, 894-898.
Zhang, L., & Seepho, S. (2013). Metacognitive strategy use and academic reading achievement: Insights from a Chinese context. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 10(1), 54-69.